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On his return, Kuskov found American otter hunting ships and otter now scarce in Bodega Bay. Metini , the seasonal home of the native Kashaya Pomo people , had a modest anchorage and abundant natural resources and would become the Russian settlement of Fortress Ross.

The present name of Fort Ross [8] appears first on a French chart published in by Eugene Duflot de Mofras, who visited California in Fort Ross was established as an agricultural base from which the northern settlements could be supplied with food and carry on trade with Alta California. In addition to farming and manufacturing, the Company carried on its fur-trading business at Fort Ross, but by , after 20 years of intense hunting by Spanish, American and British ships—followed by Russian efforts—had practically eliminated sea otter in the area.

Fort Ross was the site of California's first windmills and shipbuilding. Russian scientists associated with the colony were among the first to record California's cultural and natural history. Together with the surrounding settlement, Fort Ross was home to Russians during the 19th and early 20th century Russian subjects included Poles , Finns , Ukrainians , Estonians , Baltic Germans , and numerous other nationalities and ethnic groups of the Russian Empire [16] , as well as North Pacific Natives, Aleuts , Kashaya Pomo , and Creoles.

The native populations of the Sonoma and Napa County regions were affected by smallpox , measles and other European diseases, one instance that can be traced to the settlement of Fort Ross. However, the first vaccination in California history was carried out by the crew of the Kutuzov , a Russian-American Company vessel arriving from Callao, Peru which brought vaccine to Monterey in August, The Kutuzov's surgeon vaccinated 54 persons.

Another instance of disease prevention was when a visiting Hudson's Bay Company hunting party was refused entry to the Colony in , when it was feared that a malaria epidemic which had devastated the Central Valley was carried by its members. In a very deadly epidemic of smallpox that came from this settlement via New Archangel wiped out most native people in the Sonoma and Napa County regions.

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Sutter describes the settlement surrounding the fort: There were eight sheds, eight bathhouses and ten kitchens. By the settlement's agricultural importance had decreased considerably, the local population of fur-bearing marine mammals had been long depleted by international over-hunting, and the recently secularized California missions no longer supplemented the agricultural needs of the Alaskan colonies.

Following the formal trade agreement in between the Russian-American Company in New Archangel and Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Vancouver and Fort Langley for their agricultural needs, the settlement at Fort Ross was no longer needed to supply the Alaskan colonies with food. The Russian-American Company consequently offered the settlement to various potential purchasers, and it was sold to John Sutter , a Mexican citizen of Swiss origin, soon to be renowned for the discovery of gold at his lumber mill in the Sacramento valley.

Afterward, possession of Fort Ross passed from Sutter through successive private hands and finally to George W. Three years later it was turned over to the State of California for preservation and restoration as a state historic monument; since then, the state acquired more of the surrounding land for preservation purposes. California Department of Parks and Recreation as well as many volunteers put extensive efforts into restoration and reconstruction work in the Fort. State Route 1 once bisected Fort Ross. It entered from the northeast where the Kuskov House once stood, and exited through the main gate to the southwest.

The road was eventually diverted, and the parts of the fort that had been demolished for the road were rebuilt. The old roadway can still be seen going from the main gate to the northwest; the rest within the fort and extending northeast has been removed.

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Most of the existing buildings on the site are reconstructions. Cooperative research efforts with Russian archives will help to correct interpretive errors present in structures that date from the Cold-War period. The only original structure remaining is the Rotchev House. Known as the "Commandant's House" from the s through the s, it was the residence of the last manager, Aleksandr Rotchev. Renovated in from an existing structure, it was titled the "new commandant's house" in the inventory to differentiate it from the "old commandant's house" Kuskov House.

The Rotchev House, or in original documents, "Administrator's House", is at the center of efforts to "re-interpret" Russia's part in California's colonial history. The Fort Ross Interpretive Association has received several federally funded grants to restore both exterior and interior elements.

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While its exterior has been partially restored, its interior is currently undergoing restoration to reflect the recent research that shows a more cosmopolitan and refined aspect of colonial life at the Fort. The Fort Ross Chapel collapsed in the San Francisco earthquake but much of the original structural woodwork remained and it was re-erected in , but retained the appearance of the American ranch-period modifications when it was used as a stable. An accidental fire destroyed the chapel on October 5, This loss of the original workmanship and materials of the chapel led to withdrawal of the Chapel's Landmark designation in A complete reconstruction of the chapel was undertaken in and the Fort Ross settlement, as a whole, retains its National Historic Landmark designation.

A large orchard , including several original trees planted by the Russians, is located inland on Fort Ross Road in Sonoma County. In the Fort Ross Cemetery, located on a ridge adjacent to the settlement, was cleared and gravesites identified by archaeological excavations. The cemetery served as a burial ground for both Russians and native people, showing no differentiation of rank or status.

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In consultation with Reverend Vladimir Derugin of the ROC, researchers were able to confirm that the burial practices followed traditional Russian Orthodox canon and norms, despite having been conducted in a remote frontier outpost. At the conclusion of the project, all unearthed individuals were returned to their the grave sites, and a religious reburial ceremony was conducted. Much archaeological research has been done at Fort Ross, more recently in search of the windmills.

The historical record states there were at least three windmills, possibly four, although the fourth may have been a watermill or a man or animal powered mill. There was, in fact, one windmill located not far from the northern end of the blockade, which was most likely used to grind wheat and barley flour. The Russian stolbovki needed a very large center post which was sunk into the ground and supported the transverse pole.

The transverse pole was rotated by the wings of the mill that faced the wind current. In October a modern interpretation of one of Fort Ross' windmills was erected and placed near the parking lot and visitors center of the State Historic Park. The windmill was built completely by hand, using the same methods that were presumed to have been used in the days of the Russian American settlement.

Its pieces were constructed in Russia and shipped to California, where it was fully assembled and now stands as the only working Russian windmill of this style. It has been pointed out, however, that this is a replica of a 19th or early 20th century Vologda Province windmill, and only bears a slight resemblance to the windmill recorded at Fort Ross in by Ilya Voznesensky. In Voznesensky's painting the roof is hipped rather than peaked, and there is no roofed exterior porch on the upper left-hand side.


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The supporting cribbing is covered in the rendition, and the proportions are noticeably different. The placement near the parking lot at Fort Ross also conflicts with archeologists' views of the actual site of the windmill as portrayed by Voznesensky. Fort Ross also designates the small rural community that exists between the towns of Cazadero , Jenner , and Gualala , with the Fort Ross Elementary School at its center.

The first Russia-based meeting within the framework of the Dialogue was held in Pskov Russian Federation on 29 and 30 May Russian trailblazers and American pioneers: On the second day, the forum participants representing business circles and the expert community of Russia and the U.

The National Weather Service has maintained a cooperative weather station at Fort Ross for many years. Fog and low overcast is common throughout the year. There are occasional warm days in the summer, which also tend to be relatively dry except for drizzle from heavy fogs or passing showers.

In January, average temperatures range from In July, average temperatures range from September is actually the warmest month with average temperatures ranging from There are an average of only 0. Average annual precipitation is The wettest year was with The wettest month on record was February with The most rainfall in 24 hours was 5. Snow rarely falls at Fort Ross; the record snowfall was 0.

Kalugin ," part of Kage Baker 's series of science fiction stories concerning " The Company. In Adrienne Jones's historical novel, Another Place, Another Spring , set in 19th century Russia, a young countess and her maid, sentenced to live in exile in Siberia get help to escape to Fort Ross in California. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tatyana , 53 Denmark.

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Fort Ross, California - Wikipedia

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